Tag Archives: Creation

The Person of God, the Father

“According to the foreknowledge of God the Father” (1 Peter 1:2 ESV).

Focus your attention on God, not on the word “foreknowledge.”  God’s eternal attributes and characteristics are revealed in both Scripture and in nature. We could know little about God without Him telling us. We can assume great things about God through an honest examination of nature, which is the evidence of His work. But to know Him, either intellectually or intimately, demands He reveal Himself to us in a way we understand. There are two ways He has done this. As mentioned, He has revealed Himself in the Scriptures. He has also given us His image so that we might know Him intimately. For this study in First Peter we will focus on some of God’s essential characteristics and eternal attributes to understand what is meant by His foreknowledge.

God’s unique essence is features of His eternal nature He shares with no created being. The words “essence” and “substance” are reasonably interchangeable when used to describe God.  As God reveals Himself, we discover the evidence of His eternal self, upon which His attributes have their foundation. His essential character is similar to His attributes. However, we could say those created in His image have similar attributes, mirrored in the image given, with a likeness to His essence, limited but given so we might intimately know Him. 

God is spiritual and has no physical substance, unlike the physical universe He created. Scripture is filled with anthropomorphic descriptions of God, describing Him as having human characteristics, given as a means for people to grasp particular aspects of His being. God is also described as having a characteristic of a bird. He has “wings” (see Psalm 17:8; Ruth 2:12). God is described as a fire, speaking to Moses from a burning bush. “When the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the bush, ‘Moses, Moses!’ And he said, ‘Here I am’” (Exodus 3:4 ESV). As an eternal being, God does not have physical characteristics.

Jesus, when speaking to the Samaritan woman at the well, describes God as spirit. “God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth” (John 4:24 ESV). Since God is a spirit, those who are created in His image must worship Him in both spiritand in truth.  Spirit means the vital principle that animates those created in the image of God. Truth is reality, whether in the physical or eternal realm.  People cannot makeup ways to worship God Worship originally came from their natural inclinations, uncorrupted by sin, according to the image of God in them. Worship is the natural outcome of an intimate relationship with God, not simply ritualistic observances. Sin and rebellion corrupts the vessel containing the image but the image of God in people is not corrupted. Jesus added these two words, spiritand truth because of the corruption of sin that has caused the inability of the sinful person to comprehend the spiritual or that which is true.

Paul tells us God’s essence is revealed in the physical universe, which is the evidence of His work.

For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. (Romans 1:19-20 ESV)

This is not a contradiction to the words of John. “No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known”(John 1:18 ESV). No one who is corrupted by sin can see God for He will not allow sin in His eternal presence. God can be known, both intellectually and intimately, by an honest examination of His creation and through an intimate relationship with the Person of His Son, Jesus Christ.

God will do only what God can do. No created being can do that which only God can do. Therefore, the evidence of God is in the work done which only He can do. People can see and examine the obvious evidence of the physical universe, including their own bodies, and their understanding of the laws of the universe. Only God can create and only He can suspend the laws of the universe and perform miracles. God may use people as the instrument though which His miracles are performed, as when God used Moses to do miracles before Pharaoh and the people of Egypt.

As His people entered the Promised Land, Joshua told them how they could know that God was with them. “Here is how you shall know that the living God is among you” (Joshua 3:10 ESV). You will know when the ark, carried by twelve men, enters the Jordan River while at flood stage, and the water is stopped so they can cross without injury. God’s miracles are more evidence of God. Peter and the disciples, and many of the people who followed and listened to Jesus, saw His works and the miracles He did. They saw Him with their eyes and witnessed His divinity, declaring Him the “Son of God” (see Matthew 14:33, 16:16; John 1:49, 6:69, 11:27, 20:31). They saw the evidence of creation, the miracles performed, and the Person of Jesus. We can read about the eyewitness accounts of the miracles of God and the Person of Jesus but can also examine the evidence of creation. As such, we can know God is both living and active in the physical universe and in the spiritual realm.

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God, Trinity

To those who are elect exiles … according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood.(1 Peter 1:1-2 ESV)

God is a mystery. Even though people are given the image of God so they might have an intimate relationship with Him, people are created and have limitations. God is not created and has no limitations. God has revealed Himself to people in both general and special creation. Peter refers to God as three persons in his opening statement. He speaks about the knowledge of God the Father, the work of the Holy Spirit and the government of God the Son, Jesus Christ. Scripture does not implicitly state God is a Trinity but does imply that God is Three in One.

In the beginning God created all things. We are told that His Spirit hovered over His creation. “The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters” (Genesis 1:2 ESV). Later, when God created Man in His image, He states “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (Genesis 1:26 ESV). God speaks of Himself in the plural. This is not the royal “we” but the eternal reality of God’s person. After Adam’s rebellion corrupted Man with sin, God gives the reason for removing those created in His image from the Garden and access to the tree of life. “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil” (Genesis 3:22 ESV). Again, when people work together to build the tower of Babel, God watches what they are doing and makes a decision to confuse their speech. “Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another’s speech” (Genesis 11:7 ESV). In all cases God is speaking of Himself in a plural form, suggesting He is more than One person.

Scripture is filled with references to God the Father as the only God. Why is our understanding the Trinity important? Throughout Scripture, God declares He is the only god, that there are no others, and that none should declare any other god.

Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, you survivors of the nations! They have no knowledge who carry about their wooden idols, and keep on praying to a god that cannot save. Declare and present your case; let them take counsel together! Who told this long ago? Who declared it of old? Was it not I, the LORD? And there is no other god besides me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none besides me. Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other. (Isaiah 45:20-22 ESV)

Many people who declare themselves Christians treat God like He is three or more gods and not a single divine person. They say He is three but do not truly believe what they declare. They will treat God the Father, as the Old Testament god, and Jesus as the New Testament god, ignoring completely the Holy Spirit. They will declare Jesus as the Son of God but not believe He is God, the Son. Jesus is a man and thus cannot be completely God while the Holy Spirit is intangible and thus cannot be God.

God is not like people. People are like God. Perhaps the often-used illustration of water is the best way of comprehending what God’s being. Water has three forms: gas, liquid and solid, depending upon the temperature in which water is found. At high temperatures, water is a gas, but is still water. At normal temperatures, water is a liquid, but still water. At freezing temperatures, water is a solid, but still water. The molecule water remains the same while the density of the molecules varies because of temperature. God does not vary because of any physical or spiritual circumstance. God, the Father, is God, as is God, the Son and God the Holy Spirit. They are all a single God yet have three distinct persons. This is a mystery. Our spiritual selves comprehend God more and more as our relationship with Him grows in intimacy.

God has revealed Himself in the Scripture. All Three Persons of the Trinity are at work throughout Scripture. In the Hebrew Scripture, we see God the Father at work in the history of mankind. In the Gospels of the New Testament we see Jesus Christ, the Son of God, come to live as a man among sinful people to draw all to Himself. In the epistles and history of the Church we see the work of the Holy Spirit drawing those who are God’s toward Him and into eternity. In our lives we see the evidence of the Trinity working in our relationship with Him, drawing us into an eternal intimacy that begins at the moment of our redemption and salvation from sin.

Trust

Meditations on the Psalms

Offer right sacrifices, and put your trust in the LORD.(Psalm 4:5 ESV)

Sacrifices and offerings mean nothing when there is self-focus, not on the Object of the gift. A self-focus shows the thinking of the heart is not on God but on an idol. What can this idol do for me? How can I influence or control this idol to act in my favor? Self-absorbed offerings to God dishonor Him. This is why slaughtering a righteous sacrifice is important and why that offering must first be the person presenting the gift.

The writer of Hebrews gives a lengthy and concise description of the sacrifice of Christ shown in the sacrificial ordinances of the Mosaic Law. These sacrifices pointed to Christ and are fulfilled in Him. “Through him then let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that acknowledge his name. Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God” (Hebrews 13:15-16 ESV). Our righteous sacrifices and offerings are no longer clean animals but ourselves, abandoned to Him, living in the world as a testament to Him as He prepares us for eternity.

Though the Psalms show the thinking of the heart of Jesus Christ as He lived and ministered in the world and His trust in God, this is the first time in the Psalms the word trustis used. Trust means to have confidence in and to be bold for the Object of trust, because one is secure and safe in His presence. Trust is one of the basic elements of faith. Faith is always in an object one believes has worked and made promises and demands obedience.

Believing is the intellectual element of knowing the truth of God’s works in creation. Obedience is the willful, volitional element doing that which is a natural, essential part of the image of God in obeying the direction given. Trust is the emotional-moral element based on the promises of God. All three elements make up faith. Remove or lessen the action of any one of the elements and faith becomes something other than faith. It is always the Object which determines the truthfulness of faith. Only God can deliver that which He promises. No idol can ever promise anything let alone deliver on a promise. Idolatry becomes the person infusing a non-living, non-existent, or demonic entity with a fantasy promise based on a superstitious and unfounded belief.

Jesus was the only person who has ever lived who both completely trusted God and made promises to us only He can keep. Speaking to His disciples about Lazarus, Jesus declared He was going to raise him from the dead. “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I go to awaken him” (John 11:11 ESV). Jesus told Martha that those who believed in Him, which means trust Him, will not die spiritually. This declaration is a promise. “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die” (John 11:25-26 ESV). There are two more incidents which follow the raising of Lazarus found within the context of the story. Jesus promises that those who follow Him and serve Him will be with Him in eternity. “If anyone serves me, he must follow me; and where I am, there will my servant be also. If anyone serves me, the Father will honor him” (John 12:26 ESV).

Jesus worked to glorify God. His promise follows God’s voice, thundering from heaven, that God will glorify His name and the Name of His Son. “But for this purpose I have come to this hour. Father, glorify your name.” Then a voice came from heaven: “I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again” (John 12:27-28 ESV). Jesus then promises to draw all people to Himself as He is crucified, hanging on the cross. He also promises to defeat the Deceiver. “This voice has come for your sake, not mine. Now is the judgment of this world; now will the ruler of this world be cast out. And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself” (John 12:30-32 ESV).

Jesus trusted God. Facing physical trauma, being tortured to death, produced emotional reactions from Him. He agonized over completing God’s will on the cross.

“Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.” And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him. And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. (Luke 22:42-44 ESV)

Trust is an emotional act of the will believing that God will fulfill the promises He has made. We can trust God because Jesus trusted God. God always delivers what He promises.

Righteous Anger

Meditations on the Psalms

Be angry, and do not sin; ponder in your own hearts on your beds, and be silent. Selah.(Psalm 4:4 ESV)

Why do any fight against God? Isn’t the knowledge of God inherent to people enough to tell them they will lose? How can those created in the image of God war against the One who created them and possibly prevail?

Angry does not mean angry, as we understand the word, in every instance used in Scripture. Angry may mean rage, agitation or being perturbed. But the word also means to quake, to fear, to tremble or be excited. The Authorized Version translates the word as stand in awe. We misinterpret the Psalm when we do not understand the meaning of the words. The Psalmist is still speaking to those people who have turned His Honor into shame and who love themselves and their own thinking more than they love God. He has told them He will make holy those who are His, those identified with His Son. They may have anger at this declaration, but they should feel awestruck with the power of God to do that which they could never do for themselves.

Do not sinis not a request. No one has permission from God to sin, which is to miss the mark of His righteousness, to go the wrong way, to bring upon themselves guilt, to forfeit their righteous standing before Him. Sin is any thinking of the heart translated into action that violates the moral law of God inherent in the image of God given to everyone. Sin is violating the essential nature given to all people, bending and breaking them, making them unable to do that for which they were created. Though we now have a sin nature, we are still told to not sin.

Acknowledging the truth and consequences of sin require all ponder, which means to say, answer, think, to speak to oneself the truth presented and then to command, to promise and intend to do that which rectifies the wrong. Every person must come to the conclusion sin exists and is true and take responsibility for their own sin. No one has an excuse.  Contemplating the truth of sin and its ultimate consequences brings one to the realization of the broken relationship between their Creator and themselves, His creation. Coming to this conclusion should drive everyone to their knees. Silent means to be still, struck dumb, to make oneself quiet.

When God answered Job, he clapped his hand over his mouth to silence himself. He saw God and then saw all his empty arguments, so he restrained himself from speaking further. “Then Job answered the LORD and said: ‘Behold, I am of small account; what shall I answer you? I lay my hand on my mouth. I have spoken once, and I will not answer; twice, but I will proceed no further’” (Job 40:3-5 ESV).

Death is the undeniable evidence of the reality of sin. As Jesus stood before the tomb of Lazarus many suggest had Jesus been present the man would not have died. Martha was the first to speak. “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died. But even now I know that whatever you ask from God, God will give you” (John 11:21-22 ESV). When Mary arrived, she exclaimed the same thought. “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died” (John 11:32 ESV). Finally, some of those standing around watching said “could not he who opened the eyes of the blind man also have kept this man from dying?” (John 11:37 ESV). They believed Jesus could do something when a person was alive. They did not believe He could do anything after a person died. No one believed the evidence of His words and works, that He had already raised people from death (see Luke 7:11-16; see Matthew 9:18-26, see Mark 5:22-43, see Luke 8:41-56). Jesus was a mere man with certain abilities fed by their superstitious beliefs. He could heal. He could not raise from death.

Martha protested when Jesus told them to take away the stone covering the tomb. She who had just declared “but even now I know that whatever you ask from God, God will give you” (John 11:22 ESV) now said “Lord, by this time there will be an odor, for he has been dead four days” (John 11:39 ESV). She did not believe Jesus with the thinking of her heart. Only after Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead, and she and the other touched her brother and lived with him, did she begin to believe.

Jesus works, as God works, leaving behind the irrefutable evidence of His labor. In creation, we are surrounded by the evidence of God. We are filled with the evidence of God having His image. Yet, we are also assaulted by sin from the world and our own flesh. Ignoring the evidence of God and of sin is irrational and insane. Our anger toward the truth of sin needs replacing with the astonishment of intimately knowing God. Only by taking responsibility for our own sin and then seeking Him with our whole hearts will we receive His eternal blessing.

Serve the Lord

Meditations on the Psalms

Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling. (Psalm 2:11 ESV)

People were created to serve God. Adam and Eve were servants given dominion over a world God created for them. They were given the image of God, a guarantee of an intimate relationship with Him. As physical beings, their purpose was to have dominion over the Earth to achieve His purposes and decrees.

Serve means to work or labor for another. Within the essence of each person is the natural compulsion to serve God. This does not mean they were slaves. God gave Adam a single prohibition, do not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (see Genesis 2:16-17). Otherwise, the Earth was theirs to do with, to go, to dream and create, to fill and subdue as they could.

Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” So God created man in him; male and female he created them. And God blessed them. And God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” (Genesis 1:26-28 ESV)

Fear means terror or a warning while rejoice means to exult or be glad. When referring to a person’s relationship with God, fear means reverence, piety and respect. He is God and His eternal being deserves the devotion of those He created. We are to rejoice with trembling, which is to take great pleasure in our relationship with Him with the greatest, conscious awareness of His holiness and our service of devotion.

Such is the level of repentance God demands from those who have mutinied. He demands they turn away from their sin and turn toward Him, with the respect and wisdom that comes from intimately knowing Him, acknowledging His authority, and serving Him with all strength and understanding. “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment” (Matthew 22:37-38 ESV; see Deuteronomy 6:5, 10:12, 30:6; see also Mark 12:33, Luke 10:27). God, speaking through Jesus who gave the words to Moses, tells people their nature is to love God and each other. Sin has taken this truth and bent its precision out of shape, making it something other than what God clearly stated.

Jesus was a servant, who demonstrated His essential character by washing the disciple’s feet before His passion.

Do you understand what I have done to you? You call me Teacher and Lord, and you are right, for so I am. If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. For I have given you an example, that you also should do just as I have done to you. Truly, truly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master, nor is a messenger greater than the one who sent him. If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them. (John 13:12-17 ESV)

Though Jesus’ purpose for coming was to die for our sins, He also left us an example. He did not come to just be an example of how to live and love God.  Jesus states that He has given us an example to follow. Peter echoes Jesus words in his first epistle. “For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps” (1 Peter 2:21 ESV).

Those who are kings and rulers in the world are God’s representatives, given authority by God. They carry a greater responsibility before God and much is required from them. For them to teach and train the people for whom they are responsible to rebel against God is to invite God’s judgment and wrath. God compassionately commands they turn form their wickedness toward His righteousness and, beginning in the thinking of their hearts, to respect and revere Him. They are designed to serve God and fulfill His purpose, not to rebel against God and find destruction.

Heritage and Possession

Meditations on the Psalms

Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession. (Psalm 2:8 ESV)

God has set His Son on the throne, decreeing He is sovereign of all creation. He brought His Son into His creation as one made in the image of God yet without the sin which corrupts the nature of all other people. His name is Jesus Christ and God promises Him all creation is His. Jesus, the man, exercises dominion over creation the way Adam and Eve were assigned dominion over the earth. Yet, His dominion extends beyond the physical control of the world to governing and giving purpose to those in the world. To rebel against the Son is to rebel against God.

Ask means to inquire, to beg, to seek. Jesus uses a Greek word, which means the same as the Hebrew ask, when He tells His disciples to ask God to give them what they need to live in this world. “Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks it will be opened” (Matthew 7:8 ESV).  Make means bestow and is translated give. God will give these things to His Son, the King of kings, because Jesus seeks God with every ounce of His being.

What does God give His Son? He gives the nations and the ends of the earth. Nations is translated heathen and includes all people, not just the chosen of God. Everyone belongs to Him. Ends of the earth is everything on the earth. Jesus is given dominion over the earth and government over the people of the earth.

John, in the opening statements of his gospel, describes who Jesus is and that He came for a specific reason.

He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him. He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him. But to all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God. (John 1:10-13 ESV)

All people includes the Gentiles, disdained by the Jews at that time as unworthy of receiving the salvation of God. Simply being a descendant of Abraham does not guarantee a place in eternity with God, the Giver of Life.

But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel, and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring, but “Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.” This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring. (Romans 9:6-8 ESV)

All people have the image of God and are worth His Son’s sacrifice. During His ministry, Jesus did not specifically try to draw attention to Himself but to God the Father, whom He served. He actively tried to discourage people from holding Him up as the answer to all their worldly problems. Instead, He focused His attention on their relationship with God, that the relationship could be reestablished and wholesome. He is confrontational but also compassionate. He is the benevolent King whose purpose is to bring those who are His into a righteous relationship with God.

This was to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah: “Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased. I will put my Spirit upon him, and he will proclaim justice to the Gentiles. He will not quarrel or cry aloud, nor will anyone hear his voice in the streets; a bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not quench, until he brings justice to victory; and in his name the Gentiles will hope.” (Matthew 12:17-21 ESV; see Isaiah 42:1-4)

Jesus created all things for Himself. By His word, all things are sustained. God established His authority over all things. This is not some future event but that which is done and completed in eternity, though we still await its completion in space-time history. To rebel against Jesus ultimately brings failure to those who rebel, for He cannot fail and will not abdicate His authority to another.

Ownership

Meditations on the Psalms

He who sits in the heavens laughs; the Lord holds them in derision. (Psalm 2:4 ESV)

Who is man that they should mock God? Who is God that He should allow anyone to mock Him? This verse is a parallel statement describing God’s reaction toward those who do not accept how they were created. God responds to rebellion, especially those who think and believe they can ever abdicate their place before Him, by throwing off the image of God and declaring themselves something other than His.

Laughs means to mock, jest, to make sport of. Derision means to mock, deride, to laugh at contemptuously. People mock God with the thinking of their hearts, so He returns their mockery.

God is Creator. He created man in His image out of dust. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them” (Genesis 1:27 ESV). Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Word of God, is God. Through Him all things were created. “All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made” (John 1:3 ESV; see John 1:1-3). This means, as the Creator of all things, especially people created in His image, God owns everything and may do with His creation as He wishes. He desires relationship with all people and would not have given them His image otherwise. This does not mean anyone can separate themselves from Him at their will. That which is created and sustained by God is also governed and given purpose by Him. “But now, O LORD, you are our Father; we are the clay, and you are our potter; we are all the work of your hand” (Isaiah 64:8 ESV).

Man is created. Though given the image of God for intimate relationship with Him, all are corrupted by sin and hate Him who created them. Sin views the truth as a lie and accepts the lie as truth. “You turn things upside down! Shall the potter be regarded as the clay, that the thing made should say of its maker, ‘He did not make me’; or the thing formed say of him who formed it, ‘He has no understanding?’” (Isaiah 29:16 ESV). Paul confronts the world’s thinking in the book of Romans, declaring God’s mockery of those who think He is nothing, or less than nothing. “Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen” (Romans 1:24-25 ESV). No one has the right to rebel against God.

The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD: “Arise, and go down to the potter’s house, and there I will let you hear my words.” So I went down to the potter’s house, and there he was working at his wheel. And the vessel he was making of clay was spoiled in the potter’s hand, and he reworked it into another vessel, as it seemed good to the potter to do.

Then the word of the LORD came to me: “O house of Israel, can I not do with you as this potter has done? declares the LORD. Behold, like the clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in my hand, O house of Israel. If at any time I declare concerning a nation or a kingdom, that I will pluck up and break down and destroy it, and if that nation, concerning which I have spoken, turns from its evil, I will relent of the disaster that I intended to do to it. And if at any time I declare concerning a nation or a kingdom that I will build and plant it, and if it does evil in my sight, not listening to my voice, then I will relent of the good that I had intended to do to it. (Jeremiah 10:1-10 ESV)

How vain and absurd are the machinations of those who rebel against God. He will not be mocked. None can separate themselves from Him. Yet, He will separate them from Himself if, at physical death they have continued in their rebellion, refusing the prompting of the Holy Spirit to repentance and the offer of His grace through Jesus Christ’s sacrifice.